Front End


HTML5 Boilerplate

HTML5 Boilerplate help in building fast, robust, and adaptable web apps or sites. It is a set of files that developers can download, which provide a foundation for any website.

JavaScript

JavaScript is a scripting or programming language that allows you to implement complex features on web pages

CSS

Cascading Style Sheets is a style sheet language used for describing the presentation of a document written in a markup language such as HTML.

JQuery

jQuery is a fast, small, and feature-rich JavaScript library. It makes things like HTML document traversal and manipulation, event handling, animation, and Ajax much simpler with an easy-to-use API that works across a multitude of browsers.

Bootstrap

Bootstrap is an open-source tool-kit for faster development of highly responsive designs. The library has a 12-column grid layout and is compatible with multiple platforms.

Angular

Angular is a platform and framework for building single-page client applications using HTML and TypeScript. Angular is written in TypeScript. It implements core and optional functionality as a set of TypeScript libraries that you import into your apps.

BackboneJS

BackboneJS is a lightweight JavaScript library that specializes in building client-side SPAs with superior design and less coding.

npm

Node Package Manager (npm) is a package manager for JavaScript. It is basically a tool that lets you discover assorted packages of reusable code and utilize it in new, powerful ways.

Reactjs

Reactjs was developed by Facebook software engineer Jordan Walke in 2011. It is an open-source JS library for building reusable UI components. It has found a major application in the development of responsive and appealing user interfaces.

Grunt

Grunt is a JavaScript task runner. It is one of the best front end development tools in terms of automation. It reduces the amount of effort invested in coding, as it performs most of the repetitive tasks.

GitHub

GitHub is a software development platform with project management features. Because it integrates easily with the existing tools, you can use GitHub for personal projects or experiment with new programming languages.

Backend Tools


PHP

Majority of websites on the world wide web use PHP as the backend. The language will top any list of popular programming languages.

Python

he open source language has emerged as one of the most popular and important languages for developers. Python’s growing popularity has made it an essential programming language to learn these days.

Ruby

A dynamic, open source programming language with a focus on simplicity and productivity. It has an elegant syntax that is natural to read and easy to write.

PHP Frame Works


Laravel

Laravel has become the most popular free, open-source PHP framework in the world. Why? Because it can handle complex web applications securely, at a considerably faster pace than other frameworks.

CodeIgniter

CodeIgniter is a PHP framework suitable for developing dynamic websites. It offers numerous prebuilt modules that help with constructing robust and reusable components.

Symfony

The Symfony framework was launched in 2005, and although it’s been in existence for much longer than other frameworks on this list, it’s a reliable and mature platform.

CakePHP

CakePHP will help you develop visually impressive, feature-loaded websites. In addition, CakePHP is one of the easiest frameworks to learn, especially because of its CRUD (create, read, update, and delete) framework.

Zend Framework

The Zend framework is a complete object-oriented framework, and the fact that it uses features such as interfaces and inheritance makes it extendable. It was built on the agile methodology,

Databases


MySQL

MySQL is one of the most popular databases for web-based applications. It’s freeware, but it is frequently updated with features and security improvements.

Oracle 12c

It’s no surprise that Oracle is consistently at the top of lists of popular databases. The first version of this database management tool was created in the late 70s, and there are a number of editions of this tool available to meet your organization’s needs.

Microsoft SQL Server

As with other popular databases, you can select from a number of editions of Microsoft SQL server. This database management engine works on cloud-based servers as well as local servers, and it can be set up to work on both at the same time

Content Management System


WordPress

WordPress.org is our number one choice for the best CMS platform. It’s the world’s most popular CMS software, and it powers around 35% of all websites on the internet.

Drupal

Drupal is another open source CMS platform. It’s the CMS behind some major websites, including The Economist’s site and a number of university’s sites.

Joomla

Joomla is another popular free open source CMS platform that comes with lots of different templates and extensions. It’s free to use, but you’ll need hosting and a domain name.

Magento

Magento is a powerful open source eCommerce platform from the huge software company Adobe. There’s a free version you can download and install on your own web hosting account, called Magento Open Source.

Web Servers


Apache HTTP Server

Apache HTTP Server has been the most popular web server since 1996, it “benefits from great documentation and integrated support from other software projects.”

NGINX

Nginx, stylized as NGINX, nginx or NginX, is a web server that can also be used as a reverse proxy, load balancer, mail proxy and HTTP cache.

Apache Tomcat

Apache Tomcat is an open source Java servlet container that functions as a web server. A Java servlet is a Java program that extends the capabilities of a server. Although servlets can respond to any types of requests, they most commonly implement applications hosted on Web servers.

Web Hosts


GoDaddy

GoDaddy Inc. is an American publicly traded Internet domain registrar and web hosting company headquartered in Scottsdale, Arizona and incorporated in Delaware.

Bluehost

Bluehost is a web hosting company owned by Endurance International Group. It is one of the 20 largest web hosts, collectively hosting well over 2 million domains.

Google Cloud web hosting

Host static and dynamic websites in the cloud with Click to Deploy or customized solutions.

Amazon Web Services

Amazon Web Services is a subsidiary of Amazon providing on-demand cloud computing platforms and APIs to individuals, companies, and governments, on a metered pay-as-you-go basis.

DigitalOcean

Easily and reliably host a website for your business, organization, or project while retaining complete control over your site’s underlying infrastructure.

Pantheon

Pantheon is a webops platform for open-source Drupal and WordPress websites. It is an app-specific PaaS provider, sold on a monthly subscription basis, with several support tiers available

Converters


Typography

fonts.google.com

Google Fonts

pxtoem.com

PX to EM conversion

loremipsum.io

Simple and better way to grab Lorem Ipsum text content

gridlover.net

Establish a typographic system with modular scale and vertical rhythm

fontpair.co

Collection of Google Fonts pairings

transfonter.org

Online font converter

fontawesome.com

Get vector icons and social logos on your website with Font Awesome, the web’s most popular icon set and toolkit.

convert.town

Convert Anything to Anything

Colors, Palettes & Patterns

color-hex.comc

Gives information about colors

colorhunt.co

Collection of color palettes

colourlovers.com

Collection of palettes, patterns, shapes and colors

heropatterns.com

Collection of repeatable SVG background pattern

colrd.com

Collection of palettes, patterns, gradients and colors

toptal.com

Collection of patterns

patterncooler.com

Collection of pattern backgrounds

color.hailpixel.com

Flat colors generator

galactic.ink

Color spectrum generator

Images, Illustrations, Videos

unsplash.com

Beautiful, free images and photos that you can download and use for any project. Better than any royalty free or stock photos.

Google Images

Google Images. The most comprehensive image search on the web.

pixabay.com

Collection of free images

transparentpng.com

This tool replaces any solid color and its close color tones in a Portable Network Graphics (PNG) photo or picture with transparent pixels.

iconfinder.com

Icon finder

free-images.com

Collection of free images

mazwai.com

Free cinematic videos under a CC BY 3.0 License

Image converters and editors

jpeg.io

Converts any major image format into a highly optimized JPEG

tinypng.com

another compression tool which allows compressing .png and .jpg images (allows pictures up to 5MB size)

websiteplanet.com

.png or .jpg compression into optimized .png (allows pictures up to 50MB size)

bse64.com

bse64.com – Encode your images into BASE64

lorempixel.com

Placeholder images generator

xiconeditor.com

Online icon editor

webresizer.com

Image editor

picsvg.com

Converts jpeg,jpg,gif,png picture to SVG

Style Guides


Design Gapp

Front End design tools

invisionapp

InVision is the digital product design platform used to make the world’s best customer experiences. InVisionApp, Inc.

Zeplin

Front End design tools

gimp.org

GIMP is an acronym for GNU Image Manipulation Program. It is a freely distributed program for such tasks as photo retouching, image composition and image authoring. It has many capabilities.

photoshop

From photo editing and compositing to digital painting, animation and graphic design

Chrome Extention


LastPass

LastPass is a password manager that auto-fills in passwords for all of the accounts you save with this extension.

Screen Shot

The LambdaTest Screenshot Chrome browser extension can be used to take complete page screenshots of website pages across varied mobile and desktop browsers with just one click.

Clear Cache

Full page screen capture and screen recorder 2 in 1. … To download to your desktop sign into Chrome and enable sync or send yourself a reminder » … a report by clicking the Feedback button in the extension’s popup menu.

ColorZilla

ColorZilla is one of the most popular color picker Chrome extensions

Page Ruler

This chrome extension can help you speedily determine pixel perfect dimensions and positioning of any component on the web page.

JSONView

It formats and prints JSONP and JSON in the browser in a tempting format.

Color picker

Color Picker gives you the possibility to choose precise colors for your work, and give you the number of the color in HEX and RGB

AMP Validator

The AMP Validator will check the current page to see if it is an AMP page and then run it through the AMP validator and report if the page passes (green) or fails (red) via the extension icon.

performance Measurements Tools


Google PageSpeed Insights

Google PageSpeed Insights is a website speed test tool that grades your website on a scale of 1 – 100. The higher the number the better optimized your site is.

Pingdom Speed Test

Pingdom is probably one of the more well-known website speed test tools.

GTmetrix

GTmetrix goes into great detail as it checks both PageSpeed and YSlow metrics, assigning your site a grade from F to A.

WebPageTest

WebPageTest is very similar to some of the previous tools mentioned but has over 40 locations to choose from and over 25 browsers (including mobile).

KeyCDN Website Speed Test

KeyCDN built a fast and lightweight Website Speed Test tool that you can use to get detailed insights on how your website performs.

Uptrends

Uptrends is pretty basic but they do offer over 35 locations to choose from when running your speed test.

Google Chrome DevTools

t is a very easy to use tool (with advanced features) and you can quickly launch it at anytime in your Chrome broswer

Sucuri Load Time Tester

The Sucuri Load Time Tester provides a quick and easy way to test the performance of your sites from around the globe. It will give you a global performance grade, from an A to

IDE Text Editors


SUBLIME TEXT 3

Sublime is a top IDE and one of the best JavaScript editors available for free. It is currently available on Windows, Mac, and Linux.

NOTEPAD++

Notepad++ is an opensource IDE and one of the top free IDEs written in C++. It supports over 50 languages and while it is not far from being the best IDE for Windows, you have to keep in mind that it is available for Windows only.

NetBeans

NetBeans is high on the list for the best web development IDE because it is easy to use and it lets you develop cool desktop, mobile, and web apps in no time.

Geany – The Flyweight IDE

Geany is a powerful, stable and lightweight programmer’s text editor that provides tons of useful features without bogging down your workflow. It runs on Linux, Windows and MacOS is translated into over 40 languages, and has built-in support for more than 50 programming languages.

Visual Studio Code

Visual Studio Code is possibly the best JavaScript ide for Windows, Mac, and Linux

RubyMine

RubyMine is a premium web development IDE and while you will be able to get a free trial, this IDE isn’t free of charge. However, if you are a Ruby enthusiast, it is definitely worth checking out.

PHPStorm

PHPStorm is another IDE developed by JetBrains. It is the best coding environment for web developers that work with PHP Frameworks like WordPress, Symfony, Laravel, Zend Framework, Drupal, Magento, Yii, and others.

Webstorm

It supports technologies like JavaScript, HTML, and CSS, but also Angular JS, TypeScript, Node.js, Meteor, ECMAScript, React, Vue.js, Cordova, and others

Reporting Tools


Wrike

Best for collaboration on project reporting

ProWorkflow

Best reporting software for graphical data reports

Hive

Best reporting tool with interactive dashboards

GoogleDataStudio

Best free reporting tools

Power BI for Office 365

Best reporting platform for scaling organization

Tableau

Best reporting software for embedded analytics

Thoughtspot

Best reporting tool for beginners

Octoboard

Best reporting software for automated reporting

Security Tools


Kee pass

KeePass supports the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES, Rijndael) and the Twofish algorithm to encrypt its password databases. Both of these ciphers are regarded as being very secure

One Time Secret

One Time Secret is a website that allows you to send sensitive information such as passwords or access keys to other people more securely than via email. … This is like a password for the person who will be receiving the secret can use to unlock it.

SEO Tools


Google Index Checker

Many website owners, webmasters, and SEO professionals are now using tools like this Google Index Checker by Small SEO Tools to quickly and easily access stats on how many web pages (URLs) that Google can crawl or index on a particular website.

Robots.txt Test Tool

txt Tester tool shows you whether your robots. txt file blocks Google web crawlers from specific URLs on your site. For example, you can use this tool to test whether the Googlebot-Image crawler can crawl the URL of an image you wish to block from Google Image Search.

Server Operation Commands


CommandsMeaning
uptimeThe uptime command is a very simple Linux command that tells us the running time of our system.You can utilize this Linux command to log in to remote servers and see for how long the system is running.Additionally, the uptime command also displays the load average of the remote system and the number of users currently logged in.

syntax


# uptime
# uptime -p

The -p flag tells the system uptime in an easily readable format..

wThe w command is another handy but practical server command that displays all the users logged in a system and their activities. Admins can use this command to see users and their processes alongside the load average. It also shows information regarding the remote hosts, login time, idle time, name of the tty, and so on.

syntax


# w
# w –short
# w –ip-addr

The –short or -s option displays a shortlist omitting CPU time and login information. Use –ip-addr or -i to print out the IP of the remote hosts.

whoYou can also use the “who” command to display information about remote users. Unlike w, who doesn’t show what the users are doing though. However, who allows a lot of additional options that enable us to get more information effortlessly.

syntax


# who
# who -b
# who -d
# who –ips

Simply running the who command gives us the names of the users alongside tty name and time. Use the -b or –boot flag to print when the system was booted, -d or –dead to show the dead processes, and –ips to print out the IP of the remote hosts instead of their username.

usersUsers is one of the most simple server commands for printing only the remote usernames.

syntax


# users
# users –version
# users –help

The –version and –help options are the only options you can use.

whoamiThe whoami command is very similar to the users command. This is one of the most popular Linux commands among beginners, and it tells who you have logged in as. It essentially just prints out the effective user id.

syntax


# whoami
# whoami –version
# whoami –help


As with users, whoami only supports the above two options as its argument.

lessUsers is one of the most simple server commands for printing only the remote usernames.The less command is another simple but extremely robust command for Linux sysadmins. It is one of the most versatile Linux commands in the arsenal of seasoned admins due to its sheer amount of features. The main objective of using less is to view files quickly and scroll through them using the page ups and downs.

syntax


# less /var/log/custom.log


Since less supports a variety of options and formats, we suggest you see the man and help pages for understanding this command in more detail.

moreThe more command also allows you to scroll through massive files very quickly. You can use this command to view the contents of a file one screenful at a time. Although more offers some useful command-line options, it’s not as powerful as the less command.

syntax


# more /var/log/custom.log
# more –help
# man more


You can consult the help page for quickly finding all the available options. Check the manual page if you want detailed information on this command.

tailThe tail command is one of the most useful tools for debugging through log files very fast. This Linux command simply displays the last portions of a file, which are more likely to contain the errors in case of log files. If you’re a sysadmin looking for quick troubleshooting, the tail can be very useful.

syntax


# tail /var/log/custom.log
# tail -f /var/log/custom.log


Adding the -f option enables admins to follow their logs as they’re written. Consult the man page for a detailed overview of the tail command.

curlThe curl utility is one of the most powerful Linux server commands for transferring files via the web. It’s a widely used software for network admins due to its plethora of simple but useful features. The curl command can take many optional arguments that allow it to perform very complex tasks

syntax


# curl example.com/file.txt
# curl example.com/file[1-100].txt
# curl –help


Since curl commands are very versatile, it’s impossible to discuss them in this guide. Please check our guide on Linux curl commands if you want to master curl.

wgetThe wget package is widely used for retrieving files over the web and is one of the two de-facto tools for downloading files on Linux. If you are a server admin looking to sharpen your Linux skills, learning this command is a must for you.

syntax


# wget example.com/file.txt
# wget -c example.com/file.txt


Since wget offers plenty of additional command-line options, you should first check out their man page to understand the workings of the options available at your disposal.

scpThe scp command is used for transferring files between remote Linux hosts securely. It stands for Secure Copy and enables admins to share files among different hosts in a network very easily. Additionally, scp allows some compelling features like the ability to manage ssh access, using secure ciphers, and so on.

syntax


# scp [email protected]_host:file.txt /local/documents/


This command downloads the text file from the remote host to the local machine. You can also use scp to copy files from your local machine to remote hosts and from one remote host to multiple remote machines.

rsyncThe rsync is another exceptional utility for transferring remote files. It is a modern-day replacement for the rcp tool and allows admins to synchronize files easily between source and destinations. The rsync tool is extremely fast and flexible, making it an ideal choice for server admins.

syntax


# rsync -t *.html new-server:public_html/


This command transfers all HTML files from the local machine to the remote host called new-server. Please check out the man page of rsync to find out all the available options offered by this tool.

sftpYou should already be familiar with the ftp command. It allows admins to transfer files using the File Transfer Protocol. The sftp command is an upgrade of the ftp command, which facilitates file transfers over the secure shell connection.

syntax


# sftp [email protected]


The sftp command provides an interactive console for transferring files securely using. Simply type a question mark (?) in this console to view all available options. We also suggest you check their manual for a detailed understanding of the sftp command.

sshhe ssh command in Linux allows admins to manage remote hosts over the secure shell protocol. It is, without any doubt, one of the most used Linux server commands. As a server administrator, you are obliged to be proficient with the ssh command.

syntax


# ssh [email protected]
# man ssh


Since the ssh command exposes a lot of additional arguments to server admins, it is better to consult the manual before starting to use this command.

pingThe ping command is a simple but extremely useful command for network admins. It allows admins to easily test the connection between local and remote machines on a network. Although ping is very simple to use, it can often save precious time during network troubleshoots.

syntax


# ping google.com
# ping yoursite.com
# ping -c 3 example.com


You can use ping to test both IPv4 and IPv6 connections. Check out the manual page to discover all command-line options available to ping.

whoisThe whois command allows Linux admins to search for contents in publicly available WHOIS databases. It is often used for finding sensitive information about a remote host. You can easily get valuable information regarding domain names and IPs using the whois command.

syntax


# whois google.com
# man whois


Since whois displays a huge amount of information, admins usually filter out the information using tools like grep. Overall, whois is a versatile command useful for server admins due to its practical use cases.

dig The dig command provides similar functionalities to the whois command. You can use it to find domain-specific information from a Linux machine. In fact, the name dig stands for Domain Information Groper.

syntax


# dig example.com


You will get much useful information such as the IP address, query time, and error codes when running this command.

nslookupThis command can be used for querying DNS servers and grab essential information regarding remote servers. Linux server admins often use the nslookup command for getting host-specific information from Domain Name Servers(DNS). Take a look at the below command to find out how this works.

syntax


# nslookup google.com


Although seemingly very simple, nslookup is one of the most widely used commands for many admins. Moreover, nslookup allows admins to use the tool in an interactive mode.

netstatThe netstat command is a compelling Linux tool that enables admins to view all active TCP connections, socket states, routing tables, and many more. If you are a server admin responsible for maintaining large-scale IT infrastructure, the netstat command can be extremely useful for you.

syntax


# netstat
# netstat -l
# netstat -a | more


Since netstat offers many useful options and arguments, it is better to check out the manual before you start using this tool.

traceroute The traceroute command in Linux allows us to display the routes our packets take before reaching a remote destination. This is a handy but useful server command, which makes it easy to determine routing faults and design firewalls.

syntax


# traceroute google.com
# traceroute example.com


This is a legacy Linux command for checking out network hops and distances effectively.

tcpdumpThe tcpdump command is certainly one of the most useful Linux server commands for network troubleshooting. It is a superb networking tool which displays the TCP/IP packets transmitted and received by your system. It is also extremely important from a security point of view.

syntax


# tcpdump
# tcpdump -c 15
# tcpdump –help


By default, tcpdump captures the packets continuously. You can tell it to only capture a certain number of packets by using the -c option. It has many more options for enabling admins to perform a variety of tasks.

ifconfigThe ifconfig tool is a widely used tool for ‘interface configuration.’ It allows admins to view their network interfaces and assign, add, delete, or control interface parameters. Since configuring the network interfaces is a huge deal for server admins, this is an essential command for IT personnel.

syntax


# ifconfig
# ifconfig | grep inet
# man ifconfig


The ifconfig command offers several options and usage, which are impossible to discuss in this guide. Please refer to our guide on Linux ifconfig commands if you are interested to know more.

iwconfigThe iwconfig command is very similar to ifconfig, except the fact that it is only for configuring wireless interfaces. Linux admins can use this tool for managing and controlling wireless interface parameters like the SSID, transmission rate, mode, and so on

syntax


# iwconfig
# iwconfig –help
# man iwconfig


Check the help page to get a summary of all available options. The man page will help you understand these options in more detail.

iptablesThe iptables utility is one of the most powerful Linux server commands for network admins. It allows them to restrict or block IPs and is used to protect servers from various malicious attacks. The iptables utility needs an in-depth discussion, which is way beyond the scope of this guide. So, we suggest readers see our guide on common Linux iptables rules.

syntax


# iptables -L
# iptables –help
# man iptables


The first command will display all currently active rules. You can also check out the help page or the manual for a detailed overview of iptables.

sestatusThe sestatus command allows us to view our SELinux status directly from the command line. It is a simple but handy little command useful for checking whether your server is rightly protected by SELinux or not.

syntax


# sestatus
# man sestatus


Network admins can easily find essential information regarding SELinux, such as the current mode, SELinuxfs mount point, name of the active policy, and so on.

sendmailThe sendmail software is widely used for delivering emails to and from remote machines. You can easily send emails from your terminal using this handy server command. Admins can also check out whether their email communications are working as intended or not using sendmail.

syntax


# echo “Subject: New” | sendmail [email protected] < mail.txt


This command will send the contents of the mail.txt file to the specified address.

mailstatsThe mailstats command is used for displaying the email statistics for Linux email servers. Admins can easily get a quick overview of their email communications using this simple terminal command. The below examples demonstrate the workings of this command.

syntax


# mailstats -p
# mailstats -f FILE


This command works by using the sendmail statistics module by default. You can override this and specify custom data using the -f flag, as shown in the second command.

ipThe ip command is arguably one of the most useful Linux server commands for modern sysadmins. It provides a compelling way to manage network devices, tunnels, routing, and many more. Moreover, the ip command exposes a lot of sub-commands aimed at tackling different networking issues.

syntax


# ip addr
# ip link
# ip addr add 192.168.1.XXX/24 dev eth0


The first command displays the active IP addresses, and the second one shows the network interfaces. The last command is used for adding IPs to specific interfaces.

nloadThe nload program is simple and easy to use Linux software that allows admins to monitor the incoming and outgoing network traffics for their servers. We really like this command due to its excellent visualization features, which provide essential insight on server usage in real-time.

syntax


# nload
# nload devices wlp1s0
# nload –help


Simply running nload provides traffic information for all available network interfaces. The second command narrows down this to only the wireless interfaces.

dstatThe dstat utility is another excellent command-line tool for monitoring the performance of your Linux servers. It allows admins to easily view their server status, usages, and other resource-related information. It is developed as a modern-day replacement of the vmstat, netstat, and ifstat tools.

syntax


# dstat
# dstat -c –top-cpu –top-mem
# dstat –help
# man dstat


Overall, the dstat command can be really beneficial to admins who are managing large-scale IT infrastructures and Linux servers.

dhclientThe dhclient command invokes the Linux Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) Client and allows admins to monitor the IP address, subnet, gateway, and other information related to the DNS server. You should be familiar with this command if you are maintaining large-scale servers.

syntax


# dhclient eth0
# man dhclient


This tool also permits admins to release currently assigned IPs of an interface and obtain new ones. Consult the man page of dhclient to learn how this command works in more detail.

ss The ss utility provides socket statistics and allows admins to monitor their server traffic more precisely. Admins usually use this Linux command for getting a detailed visualization of their network statistics. So, it can be an excellent option for network admins looking for suitable socket dumping tools.

syntax


# ss
# ss -lt
# ss -p
# ss –help


The ss command offers many additional options that allow it to perform advanced tasks. You can check out the help page to find a summary of all available options. Head to the manual if you are looking for further explanation.

mtrThe mtr utility combines the features of the ping command and traceroute command into a single program. It is one of the most used Linux server commands for investigating packet connections, and thus you should be familiar with mtr.

syntax


# mtr
# mtr –report
# man mtr


The –report option stops automatically after analyzing ten packets and creates a report based on its analysis. You can easily. Additionally, mtr exposes many more extra options for tackling different types of operations. The manual page provides an in-depth discussion regarding these options.

free The free command provides a simple but useful way of checking the available and occupied memory of your Linux server. It is a compelling tool for admins since analyzing the memory space is essential for the maintenance of your server computers.

syntax


# free
# free -m
# man free


The free command is very versatile and offers a number of additional options. You can use these options to format the memory usage output as required. Take a look at the man page for a detailed overview.

dfThe df command is the de-facto Linux tool for monitoring disk space information. It is a commonly used command which yields sensitive information regarding memory usage. The df command can be used in a variety of situations, so it is hard to discuss all of them in a single paragraph.

syntax


# df -a
# df -h
# df -T
# man df


We have already covered the Linux df command in detail and suggest readers check that guide if looking for an in-depth introduction.

htopThe htop utility is a mesmerizing tool for monitoring the CPU usage of your Linux server effortlessly. It is a modern-day upgrade for the legacy top program. Moreover, htop is straightforward to use, so even starting admins can leverage this tool.

syntax


# htop
# htop –help


You can easily find all currently running system processes and their CPU usage through this Linux command. Take a look at the help page for a summary of all available options offered by htop.

psThe ps command displays information about system processes and can be extremely beneficial when troubleshooting server problems. It is another versatile command that has significant importance in the maintenance of large IT infrastructures and Linux servers.

syntax


# ps
# ps -ef
# ps -eM
# man ps


The ps command is one of our favorite Linux terminal commands due to its simple but practical usage. We encourage readers to check their man page for getting a detailed overview.

envConfiguring the environment variables is a sensitive task, and server admins must make sure they have done it correctly. The env command allows admins to check the active environment variables and run programs in a modified system environment. So this is a useful command for almost every Linux sysadmin.

syntax


# env
# env –help
# man env


The env command also supports multiple command-line options like traditional Linux terminal commands. View the help page top get summarized information about these options, or visit the man page for a detailed overview.

chmodLinux filesystem permissions play an extremely important role behind the security of your Linux web servers. We have already covered this topic in detail in an earlier guide. Here, we want to outline the chmod command, which is one of the essential Linux server commands a sysadmin should know.

syntax


# chmod 755 test.file
# chmod –help


Since the chmod command is quite advanced, it is hard to talk about how this works here. Please refer to our guide and the manual page for getting more information on how to use it.

lsofThe lsof command is used for displaying all currently open files alongside the processes that opened them. It is a widely used Linux command and can be useful in a number of scenarios, such as troubleshooting.

syntax


# lsof
# lsof –help
# man lsof


The lsof command offers numerous additional command-line options. You can get a quick view of all the available options from its help page. Visit the manual page if you want further explanation.